Filters might be purchased ready for use made from Perspex, and for hygienic reasons it is much better to use this kind than to make your own from other materials which may contaminate the water.
The corner filter is merely a container into which a filtering medium-glass wool, charcoal, pebbles, and coarse sand, for instance-is packed. The water is then raised from the tank by means of the aeration pump, via a ‘U’ tube, and then poured back into the tank via the filter.
A filter of this kind will remove a lot of the larger organic matter suspended in the water, and will generally clear up the condition of slightly cloudy water. You should clean the filter a minimum of once a week if it is in continual use.
The biological filter is a bottom filter that may have certain benefits over the conventional types, but it should be utilized correctly.
With out getting too technical, this kind of filter employs bacteria to convert the aquarium waste into beneficial mineral salts. The equipment consists of perforated tubes buried in the gravel, generally in the shape of a rectangular framework, along with a vertical air-lift tube. Air is pumped into the lower end of the air-lift tube which causes the water contained in it to rise and overflow back into the tank. This action naturally tends to suck water in to replace the water expelled, and also the result is that water passes down via the gravel, via the perforated tubes, and back into the tank, via the air-lift tube, and in so doing brings the organic waste material down between the grains of gravel. Bacteria, which are present on the surfaces of gravel grains, then convert this waste into salts which are use-ful to plant growth. During this procedure a certain quantity of acid is formed which, if produced in excessive amounts, tends to decrease the size of the leaves of plants, and is also disliked by some species of fish.
The depth of sand is essential, the deeper the much better, but think about 2 in. to be a minimum. Grain size also has an effect on the efficiency of under-gravel filtration, if the grains are too big, they accept much more food than is needed, and we have an unnecessarily high concentration of bacteria, and, needless to say, an attendant increase in acidity of the water. If the grains are too little, nevertheless, they’ll pack tightly together and this will stop the bacteria doing the job.
Check occasionally to see if too a lot food is penetrating the sand by stirring the sand, if the top i-in. layer is caked, you’re allowing excessive food to reach the bacteria.
Filters are usually operated from little air pumps and employ the air-lift principle, but with the increased interest in marine aquaria, where filtration is much more essential, the range of filters has notably increased. Power filters, which suck the water from deep in the tank, pass it via the filter media, and return the water to the tank via a spray tube, could be obtained fairly cheaply. They’re capable of filtering up to 60 gallons per hour, for both fresh and salt water.
The numerous filter manufacturers generally suggest the very best combination of filter media, but these require not necessarily be adhered to strictly. Some aquarists don’t like to use glass wool, for instance, but gravel, carbon, peat and also the numerous proprietary media provide an adequate option.
The disadvantage of glass fiber, or spun glass, is its tendency to break into fine splinters which find their way into the aquarium and are eaten by the fish, or stick in their gills causing inflammation.
There are lots of proprietary filter arrangements accessible, and whilst experienced aquarists might find them unnecessary items of equipment, they do assist to maintain the water clear and visually attractive, but they should not be considered a panacea for all water issues.